Monday, May 25, 2020

Physics And Physics Atomic Theory - 2392 Words

In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms. It began as a philosophical concept in ancient Greece and entered the scientific mainstream in the early 19th century when discoveries in the field of chemistry showed that matter did indeed behave as if it were made up of atoms. The word atom comes from the Ancient Greek adjective atomos, meaning uncuttable. 19th century chemists began using the term in connection with the growing number of irreducible chemical elements. While seemingly apropos, around the turn of the 20th century, through various experiments with electromagnetism and radioactivity, physicists discovered that the†¦show more content†¦However, these ideas were founded in philosophical and theological reasoning rather than evidence and experimentation. Because of this, they could not convince everybody, so atomism was but one of a number of competing theories on the nature of matter. It was not until the 19th century that the idea was embraced and refined by scientists, as the blossoming science of chemistry produced discoveries that could easily be explained using the concept of atoms. Dalton Near the end of the 18th century, two laws about chemical reactions emerged without referring to the notion of an atomic theory. The first was the law of conservation of mass, formulated by Antoine Lavoisier in 1789, which states that the total mass in a chemical reaction remains constant . The second was the law of definite proportions. First proven by the French chemist Joseph Louis Proust in 1799, this law states that if a compound is broken down into its constituent elements, then the masses of the constituents will always have the same proportions, regardless of the quantity or source of the original substance. John Dalton studied and expanded upon this previous work and developed the law of multiple proportions: if two elements can be combined to form a number of possible compounds, then the ratios of the masses of the second element which combine with a fixed mass of the first element will be ratios of small whole numbers. For example: Proust had studied tin oxides and found that

Thursday, May 14, 2020

European Imperialism in Africa Essay - 1405 Words

Europe, in the late 1800’s, was starting for a land grab in the African continent. Around 1878, most of Africa was unexplored, but by 1914, most of Africa, with the lucky exception of Liberia and Ethiopia, was carved up between European powers. There were countless motivations that spurred the European powers to carve Africa, like economical, political, and socio–cultural, and there were countless attitudes towards this expansion into Africa, some of approval and some of condemnation. Europe in this period was a world of competing countries. Britain had a global empire to lead, France had competition with Britain for wealth and so did other nations like Germany and Russia. Expansion was a goal that all nations wanted to achieve. Prince†¦show more content†¦The resolution of the German Social Democratic Party Congress also furthers the anti imperialist sentiment that existed during this time, by explaining that â€Å"Capitalist exploitation†¦ corresponds first and foremost to the greedy desire of the bourgeoisie for new opportunities to invest in its ever–increasing capital which is no longer content with exploiting the home market, and to the desire for new markets which each country tries to usurp for itself.† Being a socialist organization, this account would be biased against capitalism and thus imperialism. The quote also explains why resources were another factor in the economic expansion into Africa; the empires needed raw materia ls and resources to keep their empires going and what they didn’t find in Europe, they’d find in Africa. These economic reasons further lead the European powers to carve out pieces of Africa for themselves in search of resources this would lead to new businesses being set up in Africa, leading to a thriving economy and quick advancement of the great powers of Europe. The economic reasons were also accompanied be political reasons. Imperialism was also accompanied by jingoism. Prince Leopold urged in his conversation â€Å"to see where there are unoccupied lands†¦ where†¦ [there is] the opportunity to prove to the world that Belgians also are an imperial people capable ofShow MoreRelatedEuropean Imperialism in Africa Essays1457 Words   |  6 PagesImperialism By the late 19th and early 20th century, Europe was expanding its borders. In an attempt to grow its economy and culture, Europe’s superpowers began to search for new soil. Africa was an easy target; it wasn’t politically secure and it wasn’t modernized. In addition, it had reliable soil which would enable Europe to produce cash crops. European nations began to pour into Africa, called the Scramble for Africa. Soon, Europe took control of Africa, taking raw materials and destroyed AfricanRead MoreEuropean Imperialism in Africa Essays1518 Words   |  7 Pagescontrol of regions in Africa and set up colonies there. In the beginning, colonization caused the Africans little harm, but before long, the Europeans started to take complete control of wherever they went. The Europeans used their advanced knowledge and technology to easily maneuver through the vast African landscape and used advanced weapons to take control of the African people and their land. The countri es that claimed the most land and had the most significant effect on Africa were France, EnglandRead MoreEssay on Africa vs European Imperialism841 Words   |  4 PagesDBQ: Imperialism In AfricaAzra Azvar Period 3 2/21/10 Whites vs Blacks In the late 19th and early 20th centuries European imperialism caused its countries to divide up the rest of the world, each country claiming bits as its own. Due to its large amounts of resources, Africa was one of the main areas European nations invaded in the cause if imperialism. In Africa, there were positive and negative effects towards the Africans and the invaders. Some positive effects on Africans were thatRead MoreEuropean Imperialism And The Colonization Of Africa984 Words   |  4 PagesAmongst the 1870s and 1900, Africa confronted European imperialist hostility, political pressures, military assaults, and ultimately the conquest and colonization. At the same time, African civilizations put up numerous methods of resistance against the effort to inhabit their countries and enforce foreign control. By the early twentieth century, however, much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been inhabited by European powers. The European imperialist drive into Africa was en couraged by threeRead MoreEuropean Imperialism in Late 19th Century Africa1624 Words   |  7 Pages European Imperialism in Late 19th Century Africa: African Response and Effects Rafael Delatorre History 002B Professor Standish April 12, 2014 Between 1870 and 1914, European countries ceased about ninety percent of Africa. Native Africans faced political, military, and imperialism pressure from various European countries. After the end of the profitable slave trade in Africa, due to abolishing of slavery, Europeans explored forRead MoreThe Impact of 19th Century European Imperialism in Africa1024 Words   |  5 PagesEuropean Imperialism heavily impacted the African continent through culturally, economic, and political ideas. This era of history is heavily drenched in the aspect of ethnocentrism, which is the belief that one’s own culture is superior that of another. The Europeans colonized Africa believing that they could bring civilization, but they were often ignorant of Africa’s very complex societies. The European powers divided up the continent of Africa among themselves, without any consent from the peopleRead MoreThe Effects of European Imperialism on South Africa Essay1847 Words   |  8 PagesThe county of South Africa is an economically flourishing country and probably the most advanced country on the continent of Africa. However the entire continent of Africa is probably the most undeveloped part of the world. Why is South Africa so different from the rest of its continent? Karen Politis Virk explains that it is because of South Africa’s developed economy and diverse population (Virk 40). South Africa has three main ethnic groups: African, Afrikaners, and the mixed race. The AfrikanersRead MoreWinds of Change: European Imperialism in Africa Essay1091 Words   |  5 Pagesby aliens, they were invaded by foreigners. They were invaded by Christian missionaries from England. The natives did not believe the stories of their neighboring village being destroyed and suffered the consequences. When British imperialism found its way into Africa it had quite profound effects on the indigenous populations such as deterioration of ancient tribal practices, hostile situations, and death and suffering on both sides. In the village of Umuofia, located near the lower Niger RiverRead More Migration and Disease in Africa during European Imperialism Essay735 Words   |  3 PagesThe Relationship between Migration and Disease in Africa during European Imperialism During the era of European Imperialism, from approximately 1880 to 1930, an increasing number of Europeans began to colonize West Africa. Because of this colonization many African natives migrated eastward, inadvertently transporting diseases to which the East Africans were not immune (Ransford 76). This phenomenon can be explained through examining the implications of geographical isolation, theRead MoreWhat Was the Driving Force Behind European Imperialism in Africa628 Words   |  3 PagesAndres Lugo Professor William Hendricks March 17, 2015 World Civilizations II Domination of resources The European powers that were in much need for resources during the 1500s through 1800s were Great Britain, France and Germany. During 1500 and 1800 Africa seemed like an impossible feat to conquer because of malaria but this wouldn’t stop the persistence of the leaders of France and Great Britain. The idea of exploring and conquering new land meant more to these leaders because of the motivation

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Shakur A Leader, Activist, Survivor, And A Black Woman

Assata Shakur A leader, activist, survivor, â€Å"rebel†, mother and a black woman, Assata Shakur is a woman who many may have heard about but not too many know her story or what she accomplished. In her autobiography, Shakur really gives a very descriptive perspective about what she has experienced in her life being apart of the civil rights and Black Panther movements. Throughout the Shakur’s story, she first talks about her experience after being beaten and then being transported to the hospital where New Jersey State Troopers tormented her each day she was there. Her accounts of her visit at the hospital showed that even the black woman could be treated with the same harsh treatment like the black man in society. Assata Shakur was treated like an animal; she was beaten, cuffed, spat on, and along with physical abuse she was verbally abused by law enforcement. She describes how she was manhandled at the turnpike all the way up to her days in the hospital and still treated like an animal by the police. She mentions a time that she went to jail in New Jersey and how it wasn’t anything new to see women beat up and dragged to the jailhouse, especially women of color: In that jail it was nothing to see a woman brought in all beat up. In some cases, the only charge was â€Å"resisting arrest†. A Puerto Rican sister was brought in one night. She had been so badly beaten by the police that the matron on duty didn’t want to admit her. â€Å"I don’t want her dying on my shift,† she kept

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Sample Assignment on Organizational Changes written by expert

Introduction Organization works in a dynamic environment and therefore it is necessary that the anticipation of changes is done in a manner that is beneficial for the company (Beer, 1997). The case of Lion Nathan, Alcoholic Beverage Company has been discussed that has applied the measures to sustain the business growth and become competitive in the markets. The company employs a total of 7500 employees. The case study will be discussed in line to the relevant organizational strategies and the nature in which they have been implemented in Lion Nathan case. Key Forces of Organizational Change External Forces External forces are referred to as the forces that are outside the purview of the organization. These forces are demographics, changes in technology, changes in the markets, and political and social forces (Burnes, 2004). Lion Nathan employs 7500 people, in which 7000 people are across Australia and New Zealand. The company is the largest purchaser of agricultural products. The company employs more than 1800 Australians and 1400 New Zealanders. Internal Forces The work force in case of Lion Nathan showed aggressive defensive style of leaderships. The desire to avoid failures is higher in the managers and they drove the employees harder to work. In order to manage talent in a proper manner, Lion Nathan developed its talent management application. Before 2001, the company was not using any such method. Kotters Eight Step Plan Creation of Sense of Urgency For creation of the sense of Urgency there should be commitment from all ends of the spectrum. This particularly happened in Lion Nathan where the leadership in order to create a change that will have lasting impact involved each and every person in the organization to commit for the change (Stout, 2007). The core values of the company that were derived by the integrity and passion of the company were inclined with the behaviour of the individuals. Forming a Coalition The initiatives for the change were done by Bob Barbour that adopted plans and design to implement the SHRM initiatives in the organization. HR function was kept in the core and he created a formation that would add value by ensuring that people work in teams. He helped in the HR functional implementation and aligning the work of the people with the agenda of the organization. Creation of Vision for Change For the creation of the change in the organization the focus was built on the cultures and behaviour dynamic in nature. The company pin pointed the culture and behaviour through the past workshops held on the development of leaders. There was a need for the company to adopt the leadership styles that were constructive in nature (Lion Wine, n d). Communication of the Vision The next step was to create a constructive management style. The communication in regards to the leaders accountability was communicated. Leaders were made to understand the model and to adopt the same for the benefits of the company. Assessments of their leadership styles were done by the Life Styles Inventory and Organizational Cultural Inventory. Removing the Barriers The adoption of the right leadership approach and moulding the leaders through workshops was the next logical step by the organization. This was done by assessment of self reported thinking styles and perception by other people. Creation of Quick Wins The transformation in the working of the company that was achieved by talent management and transformation in leadership styles and 360 degree feedback resulted in steady growth of more than 6 percent. The expansion was also made possible into fine wines and RTD. Build on Change Realignments were made and the accountability increased. The company in order to build on the changes brought the 10 core behaviours that were imbibed in the performance management processes. Changes in Corporate Culture The company remains committed and invests in the core strategic facilities, people, and assets. Cultural Learning New leadership regime was developed by the adoption of constructive leadership styles by the leaders. The changes in the accountability and the responsibility were created. The new culture of Lion Nathan has evolved after the OCI system. This system includes the behaviour that the people feel is essential for the organization. New model includes coaching to the employees and making them more accountable. The key strengths of the company is to provide the employee chances to grow, this is done by training the employees, and identification of the talent. Another advantage of the company is the engagement of the employees and supportive behaviour of the company that ensures that the company meets the needs of the customers (Fox, 2008). The company uses technology and keeps evolving it for the betterment of the HR system. The HR systems are evaluated on the basis of metrics. This includes the cost of hiring, and tools like the customer and engagement of the employees. The edge for the company is its ability to engage the people and the customers (Lawrence, 2011). Leadership Theory Behaviourism theory gets its relevance in case of the organization under study. The behavioural theory states that the leaders are made and not born. On the basis of the practices of the company some key attributes are demonstrated. The company believes that the work of the leaders influences the motivation levels and the style of working of the employees. The company has grown in terms of the planning and implementation of the three pillar strategy created by Bob Barbour, which includes the creation of the objectives, and management of people and the processes. The company policies have been effective due to the fact that the strategies made were all for the long term business perspectives of the company. The development of the constructive style leadership has been made in Lion Nathan. The changes in the company have been effective through a series of the behaviour and cultural changing measures (Lion Sustainability Report, 2013). The challenges were given to the leaders of Lion Na than so that they develop their own constructive styles. The company believes that the leaders are important part for the culture, and therefore the HR strategies were realigned. The leaders were given coaching and lessons so that they were able to create their own styles. The approach of the company has been Behaviour * Results model. The model is pretty clear not only are the results the behaviours also accessed by the company. The rewards to the people are given not only the basis of the performances but also on the basis of the constructive approach that is required in the approach. The new culture is valuable in the sense that the people are heard in the organization that creates the viability in the organizational working (Cooke Lafferty, 2008). There has been significant impact of the leadership efforts of the company and that has been a significant experience on the company. The company is always engaging the clients and the people together and that has been the biggest adv antage of the company. The company manages the stakeholders and there interest. The success of the company can be seen from the people engagement survey. The company achieved the responses of 85% of the respondents who mentioned that the company is the global high performance company. This survey was done in the year 2013, and that made the improvement of 2% from the year 2012. The company through its leadership measures uses effective tools to engage the employees and well being of the people are ensured. This brings the group in the highly ethical company. The advantage of the company lies in the fact that they work on the basis of the authenticity and increasing authenticity in the organization. Employee Strategies to Motivate the Employees Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory measures that motivational factor of the person and the acts are determined by that motivation factor. In case of Lion Nathan, the community platform is built on the three pillars that is sociability, passions and integration of the people. The culture of the company motivates the employees to work in a better and constructive manner. The culture is measured by the honest opinions and the people communication. The more blue the company is the better it is for the culture as it supports constructive atmosphere among people. The internal and external communication channels help the people to remain engaged in the company. This motivates them to work harder and in a innovative manner. There is the policy of engagement of the employees and the stakeholders with the organization core values. This creates the bonding between the employees that creates the motivation of the employees. The company makes efforts to invest among employees. These programmes also called the lea rning spaces are beneficial for the motivation of the employees. Conclusion Lion Nathan has been innovative and engaging for the stakeholders. The plans of the company have always focused on the performance and the leadership qualities in the people. The constructive values in the people and the effective communication are beneficial for the companys growth. Both external and internal processes are catered by the company. This results in the bonding between the employees and the company that has been noted in various surveys. The company therefore has been successful in the approach of leaderships and creating leaders that are long lasting and make decision that have long lasting benefits for the company. References Cooke, R A Lafferty 2008, Culture Transformation Achievement Awards [Online] Human Synergistics International, Available from: www.hsnz.co.nz, Accessed 23 August 2014. Fox, C 2008, Chasing the froth: Lion Nathan CEO Rob Murray, Australian Financial Review Boss, pp 3841. Lawrence, A 2011, Chapter 7. In Graetz, F., Rimmer, M., Lawrence, A. Smith, A., Managing Organizational Change, Australia: John Wiley. Lion Sustainability Report 2013, Sustainability Report [Online], Available from: lionco., Accessed on 23 August 2014. Lion Wine n d, About us [Online], Available from: , Accessed on 22 August 2014. Stout, B 2007, Leadership Development Restores Lion Nathans Roar, in T+D Magazine, 61(12), pp 6870.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

I Did My Report On Filariasis, Which Is More Commonly Known As Elephan

I did my report on filariasis, which is more commonly known as elephantiasis. Elephantiasis is the late phase of filariasis. Filariasis is a tropical mosquito born parasitic disease causing obstruction of the lymph vessels. In some people the presence of the worm causes a tissue reaction that causes the lymph flow to be blocked. This blockage produces lymphedema which is a swelling and can eventually lead to a tremendous enlargement of an extremity or organ. When elephantiasis follows repeated infection, parts of the body -- particularly the legs -- become grossly enlarged and the surrounding skin hardens and ulcerates. Certain types of elephantiasis can be treated surgically. Elephantiasis of the legs is usually treated with elastic bandages and frequent elevation of the legs. The leg and foot, may swell to elephantine size. There may be allergic reactions like itching and localized swelling. The body may also react by causing calcium tissue to be deposited around the worm, walling it off and eventually causing its death. In humans, the mature worm lives tightly coiled in the lymphatic vessels where they reproduce. The female holds the fertilized eggs in her body. Later the embryos, called microfilariae, are discharged alive. An interesting feature of these worms is the periodic swarming of the microfilariae in the bloodstream. In most species swarming takes place at night. The embryos can be taken up by an insect only when they are in a human's bloodstream. They develope into infective larvae in the insect, which is the intermediate host. These hosts are various genera of mosquitoes, notably A?des, Anopheles, and Culex. Within 10 to 11 days after ingestion by a human skin they migrate to the lymphayic vessels where they mature and reproduce. There isn't really any prevention to this disease. Bibliography Drimmer, Frederick; THE ELEPHANT MAN; Putnam Publishers; New York, 1985 "Elephantiasis", FISHBEIN'S ILLUSTRATED MEDICAL AND HEALTH ENCYCLOPEDIA; H.S. Stuttma n Inc. Publishers; Westport, CT.; 1983 ed., vol. 2, pp. 527 "Filariasis", COLLIER'S ENCYCLOPEDIA; Macmillan Educational Company New York, Maxwell Macmillan Canada, Maxwell Macmillan International Publishing Group; New York, Oxford, Sydney; 1991 ed., col. 9, pp. 698-699

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

What Effects the Bounce of a Dropped Ball Essay Example

What Effects the Bounce of a Dropped Ball Essay Example What Effects the Bounce of a Dropped Ball Essay What Effects the Bounce of a Dropped Ball Essay Aim The aim of this experiment is to investigate the efficiency of a bouncing ball, and the factors which affect its efficiency. Hypothesis If I increase the height from which a ball is dropped, then the bounce height will increase because it will increase the speed and create a larger impact, causing the ball to bounce higher then dropping it from a lower height. Materials 1. High bounce ball 2. Measuring tape 3. Tape 4. Wall Risk Assessment H- Cutting yourself with the measuring tape C- Handle with care and ensure that it is locked Method 1. Hold the measuring tape with the 0 centimeter end on the floor. Then tape the measuring tape to a wall. 2. Hold the bottom of the high bounce ball in place with the 100 centimeter mark on the measuring tape. 3. Drop the ball and determine the total bounce height of the ball, which would be the distance from the surface to the bottom of the ball at the top of its bounce. . Continue till you have data for 3 tests. 5. Repeat steps 2-5 for drop heights 80 cm 60 cm 40 cm 6. Average all the data. Variables Independent variable = drop height Dependent variable = bounce height Controlled variables = ball, surface, measuring tool Data Table Height a Ball Bounced From Different Drop Heights DROP HEIGHT (CM) TEST 1TEST 2TEST 3AVERAGE 10050495150 8038394039 6031293030 4022202120 Graph

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Cell Biol- Genetics practical lab report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Cell Biol- Genetics practical - Lab Report Example The activity of protein also varied between the fractions, with the liver particulate and lysed liver particulate showing higher levels of protein than the supernatant. The results of the experiment indicate that the majority of energy converting reactions is centred within the mitochondria, with the MDH reaction causing the highest amount of absorption, suggesting a stronger reaction. The prevalence of protein within this portion of the cell supports this hypothesis. The use of electron acceptors to measure the strength of reactions was an effective approach to determining the prevalence of each reaction, as well as their localisation within the cell. Throughout the human body, different enzymes interact with one another to form comprehensive reactions and chains of reactions that play important roles in the functioning of the human body (Schilling et al., 1999). The exact combination of enzymes and reactions that occur differ depending on the part of the body that is being considered, and the function of the cell. For example, the cells in the brain may perform some of the same functions as cells in the liver, such as cell replication, while other functions are significantly different, resulting in the use of different enzymes. The liver has a range of roles, including the maintenance of blood glucose during starvation by the activation of glycogen. It is a critical organ for survival (Salway, 2012). As well as variation in function and enzyme composition across organs and areas of the body, this also occurs within organelles present within cells. Determining what enzymes are present in different cellular components and their level of activity can be achieved through the use of cell fractionation techniques (Scnaitman and Greenawalt, 1968). One cellular component of interest is the mitochondria, which are essential organelles, involved in cell death pathways as well as the production of metabolic energy (van Loo et al.,

Thursday, February 6, 2020

The Impact of Information System on Business Process Design Research Paper

The Impact of Information System on Business Process Design - Research Paper Example The use of information systems also enables the company to expand and grow its operations outwards to scales that were almost unimaginable through the analog system of business design and engineering, such as globalization processes through the creation of the subsidiaries by multinational corporations. Furthermore, the organizations also benefit from the large market sphere and control brought about by the introduction of business technology and information systems within the processes of conducting business. As such, the paper considers the best methods undertaken by businesses in expanding and modernizing their operations using and adoption of technology and information systems. In fact, information systems brought about a major revolution in specific organizational sectors such as the executive and management roles, as well as, the manner and style by which people work at their organizations. This is phenomenal through the redesign processes of these business operations, and the benefits achieved through the transformation of these new company practices. A business process is a structural procedure of diverse activities, tasks, or procedures within a business in order to achieve a specific goal, or produce a certain kind of service, product, or brand for meeting a particular demand from a customer, a market, or a business client. A business process incorporates a flowchart kind of operation whereby a sequence of integrated activities operate together through a process matrix based on a varied rules provided by the data in the processes. However, there are varied versions on the definition of business processes and how they affect the operations of a business.

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Deontological Vs Utilitarian Ethics Essay Example for Free

Deontological Vs Utilitarian Ethics Essay Kant believed that morality is dependent upon reason, that to act rationally was the same as acting morally. He placed a high value upon duty in determining the moral worth of an action. Kant’s deontological ethics is essentially an ethics of duty or obligation. As such, he claims that the moral worth of an action depends solely on whether or not it was done exclusively from a sense of duty. If an act is done simply because one is so inclined, the act has no moral value. This principle holds true even if inclination happens to be in agreement with duty. To illustrate this point, he uses the example of a truly beneficent person. He says that while kindness to all man is a duty, there are some who are naturally inclined to be kind. He asserts â€Å"But I maintain that in such a case an action of this kind, however proper, however amiable it may be, has nevertheless no true moral worth, but is on a level with other inclinations†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Gregory and Giancola, 82). When these spread kindness while motivated by their own inclination to be kind, their kind acts have no moral value, because in his view in order for an act to be moral, it must be done for the sake of duty alone. Essentially, deontological ethics says the less inclined one is to perform an act that duty calls one to, the more moral worth the act has. While deontological ethics is completely independent of inclination, utilitarian ethics is in many was based upon it. Utilitarianism is built on hedonism, which is the claim that pleasure is the supreme good for man. The main idea of utilitarianism is that man is naturally inclined to seek pleasure and avoid pain and this natural inclination is to be embraced as it will lead man to the supreme end, which is happiness. Utilitarian ethics says that moral acts are those that promote pleasure and avoid pain while immoral acts do the opposite. In is definition of utilitarianism, John Mills says that as far as possible, pleasure in its highest quantity and quality should be promoted and this for the greatest number of people possible. He says, â€Å"†¦that standard is not the agent’s own greatest happiness, but the greatest amount of happiness altogether†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Gregory and Giancola, 92). In my view this means that according to utilitarian ethics, the moral act is the o ne that brings pleasure to the greatest amount of people.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Software Patents and the European Union :: Software Technology Europe Essays

Software Patents and the European Union Introduction The European Council recently approved changes to the European Union’s Software Patents Directive that will lead the way to widespread patenting of software in Europe.[1] If the changes are ratified without modification, then the European Patent Office (EPO) will have the ability to grant software patents in much the same manner as the United States Patent Office (USPO). This will lead to many of the problems that have arisen in the United States. For instance, the USPO is infamous for issuing patents for obvious software process, such as Amazon’s 1-click shopping. The granting of these obvious patents has led to a flurry of litigation, where the patent holder tries to extort licensing fees for alleged â€Å"patent infringement†. This has led to corporations to try and patent â€Å"everything under the sun†, in order to protect them from getting sued and to create a platform to launch their own litigation/licensing extortion from their competitors. I t has also created a flood of patent applications for software, giving the overworked USPO little time to examine and research for any â€Å"prior art† that would invalidate the patent application. After giving a background on software patent history in the European Union, this paper will attempt to analyze the ethical issues of software patents. Do they bring more harm to society than good? Do they promote innovation and research or do they stifle invention? These questions, along with other issues dealing with software patents, will be examined from a variety of ethical perspectives. Background Initially, software was not patentable under European law. This was decreed in the Article 52 of the European Patent Convention of 1973, which states that â€Å"mathematical methods, intellectual methods, business methods, computer programs, presentation of information etc are not inventions in the sense of patent law.† [2] However, small changes in European Patent law over the years has led to the patentability of â€Å"process claims†, â€Å"program claims†, and even â€Å"computer-implemented inventions†, which has led to 30,000 software related process patents.[3] In 2002, the European Commission's Directorate for the Internal Market proposed the creation of a Directive to clarify the patentability of computer-implemented inventions and reduce excess at the EPO. However, the Directive only put on paper what the EPO had already been practicing, which was granting unlimited patentability. In September of 2003, a set of amendments to the Directive were voted in by the European Parliament.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Will Biofuels Solve Global Warming

Will Biofuels solve global warming? Global warming is caused by greenhouse gasses; these trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere that should escape from the earth. Global warming is causing sea levels to rise and ice caps to melt this could lead to coastal cities flooding, droughts in area’s which usually get rain and less crops to list only a few affects. The cause of global warming is â€Å"greenhouse gasses† these gasses include nitrous oxide carbon dioxide and water vapour.Cars produce CO2, H20 and trace amounts of nitrogen oxide all greenhouse gases, with the amount of cars on the road surpassing the 1 billion mark in 2010 according to Ward’s Auto with the average car realising 7 tons of CO2 each year it is easy to see why cars are one of the biggest contributors to global warming, producing energy for factories to work also produces harmful gases one solution to this problem is Biofuels. Biofuels is the term given to living or recently living biological material which can be used to fuel cars and other forms of transport they can be derived from any Biomass include animal waste products. Also read: What Unique Challenges Do Aquatic Plants Face That Terrestrial Plants Do NotOne of the main advantages of Biofuels is that they are almost carbon neutral; when a crop is growing it performs photosynthesis to create sugars and other organic compounds that provide energy during this process plants take in CO2 when these crops are turned into Biofuels and burned this CO2 is realised back into the atmosphere as no more CO2 has been added it is carbon neutral however some CO2 is produced in transporting these crops and turning them into Biofuels so they are not completely carbon neutral.Unlike fossil fuels such as petrol Biofuels are a renewable energy source this means they will not run out as crops can be grown back relatively quickly. Biofuels can be created anywhere in the world meaning it is accessible to many people. Biofuels are also cheaper to run than petrol or diesel with the price of petrol rising due to it depleting amount Biofuels are cheaper to attain. Other benef it of Biofuels is that they provide jobs and industry for many farmers all over the world.One popular type of Biofuel is Biodiesel which has many advantages * Simpler to make than other Biofuels such as Ethanol * Burn up to 75% cleaner * Provide new source of income for farmers However Biofuels also have their disadvantages one of the main problems is the land needed to produce the crops. In the UK in 2010 71. 61 % of the UK land was used in agriculture this left around 28. 39 % of land for other uses, coming of the lack of land environmentalist worry that the habitat of any animals and wild plants creating the room to grow Biofuels.At this moment in time Biofuels are not sustainable without affecting the price of food and production. Though Biofuels will give farmers more income however it will give farmer more income than growing crops does this leads to the danger of farmers stopping the growing of crops to grow Biofuels this could lead to less food production and ultimately star vation. Biodiesel also has disadvantages *   sustainability issues * Making biodiesel is not very efficient Biodiesel cannot meet the demand of diesel.Biofuels are not the only alternative fuels Hydrogen fuel cells could also be used in cars to power them they are cleaner than most fuels. Electrical cars are also become increasingly popular however unless the electricity is produced using Biofuels they can still be damaging on the environment. There is no definitive answer to â€Å"Will Biofuels solve global warming† as the issue we are in is far too complex for just one solution, Biofuels along with other renewable energy sources e. g. wind turbines and hydroelectric power would provide a more viable solution to global warming.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Exposure to Violent TV Causes Aggressive Behavior in Children

Exposure to Violent Television Causes Aggressive Behavior in Children Abstract: Studies of the aggressiveness in children in relation to the amount of violent television viewed were examined. The results are discussed and a potential solution is proposed which assigns responsibility for the control of television viewing and its effects to parents and children. Television is the most powerful medium the world has ever seen. Never before has it been possible to communicate and so strongly influence millions of people at the same moment right in their own homes. But its misuse has been felonious, and society is paying an increasing price (Langone, 1984). Almost weekly the press carries some story about the harmful effects of†¦show more content†¦The on-off switch is the ultimate defense, and parents wield it (Mortimer, 1994). Parents do have a duty to protect their children from the effects of violent television (Zuckerman, 1993), and one way that parents protect their children is to teach them such moral values as honesty, courage, and self-control (Browden, 1995). However, because the children are directly involved in this problem, and are the ones who are watching and being affected by the violent television they are viewing, They need to participate in the effort to resolve this issue. Parents cant do it all by themselves; especially in these days of single-parent and two-career families, parents just cant be with their children all of the time (Mortimer, 1994). The questions that are to be addressed in this paper are the following: What is considered violent television? What are the effects of violent television on children? Who is responsible for the effects on children? How can we begin to resolve the issue of the effects of violent television on children? Several definitions of violent behavior in relation to the media have been put forth. A violence index compiled for cable television programs defines it as a clear-cut and overt episode of physical violence--hurting or killing or the threat of hurting and/or killingin any context.Show MoreRelatedTelevision : Violence And Television1187 Words   |  5 Pagesbrothers who were in middle school. When it came to picking a Tv show to watch, it seem as if I was a ghost, because my brothers never asked me for my opinion, things always went there way. With that being said, I grew up watching lots of violent on tv, I never really got to watch kids shows, the only shows I watch were the shows my brothers like. My brothers and I grew up in a violence neighborhood, so we watched violent movies,and tv shows, we felt related to. Outside the doors of our house, wereRead MoreMedia Violence Essay1529 Words   |  7 Pagesbetween televised violence and violent behavior amongst adolescents. 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