Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Deontological Vs Utilitarian Ethics Essay Kant believed that morality is dependent upon reason, that to act rationally was the same as acting morally. He placed a high value upon duty in determining the moral worth of an action. KantÃ¢â¬â¢s deontological ethics is essentially an ethics of duty or obligation. As such, he claims that the moral worth of an action depends solely on whether or not it was done exclusively from a sense of duty. If an act is done simply because one is so inclined, the act has no moral value. This principle holds true even if inclination happens to be in agreement with duty. To illustrate this point, he uses the example of a truly beneficent person. He says that while kindness to all man is a duty, there are some who are naturally inclined to be kind. He asserts Ã¢â¬Å"But I maintain that in such a case an action of this kind, however proper, however amiable it may be, has nevertheless no true moral worth, but is on a level with other inclinationsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Gregory and Giancola, 82). When these spread kindness while motivated by their own inclination to be kind, their kind acts have no moral value, because in his view in order for an act to be moral, it must be done for the sake of duty alone. Essentially, deontological ethics says the less inclined one is to perform an act that duty calls one to, the more moral worth the act has. While deontological ethics is completely independent of inclination, utilitarian ethics is in many was based upon it. Utilitarianism is built on hedonism, which is the claim that pleasure is the supreme good for man. The main idea of utilitarianism is that man is naturally inclined to seek pleasure and avoid pain and this natural inclination is to be embraced as it will lead man to the supreme end, which is happiness. Utilitarian ethics says that moral acts are those that promote pleasure and avoid pain while immoral acts do the opposite. In is definition of utilitarianism, John Mills says that as far as possible, pleasure in its highest quantity and quality should be promoted and this for the greatest number of people possible. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦that standard is not the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s own greatest happiness, but the greatest amount of happiness altogetherÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Gregory and Giancola, 92). In my view this means that according to utilitarian ethics, the moral act is the o ne that brings pleasure to the greatest amount of people.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Software Patents and the European Union Introduction The European Council recently approved changes to the European UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s Software Patents Directive that will lead the way to widespread patenting of software in Europe. If the changes are ratified without modification, then the European Patent Office (EPO) will have the ability to grant software patents in much the same manner as the United States Patent Office (USPO). This will lead to many of the problems that have arisen in the United States. For instance, the USPO is infamous for issuing patents for obvious software process, such as AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s 1-click shopping. The granting of these obvious patents has led to a flurry of litigation, where the patent holder tries to extort licensing fees for alleged Ã¢â¬Å"patent infringementÃ¢â¬ . This has led to corporations to try and patent Ã¢â¬Å"everything under the sunÃ¢â¬ , in order to protect them from getting sued and to create a platform to launch their own litigation/licensing extortion from their competitors. I t has also created a flood of patent applications for software, giving the overworked USPO little time to examine and research for any Ã¢â¬Å"prior artÃ¢â¬ that would invalidate the patent application. After giving a background on software patent history in the European Union, this paper will attempt to analyze the ethical issues of software patents. Do they bring more harm to society than good? Do they promote innovation and research or do they stifle invention? These questions, along with other issues dealing with software patents, will be examined from a variety of ethical perspectives. Background Initially, software was not patentable under European law. This was decreed in the Article 52 of the European Patent Convention of 1973, which states that Ã¢â¬Å"mathematical methods, intellectual methods, business methods, computer programs, presentation of information etc are not inventions in the sense of patent law.Ã¢â¬  However, small changes in European Patent law over the years has led to the patentability of Ã¢â¬Å"process claimsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"program claimsÃ¢â¬ , and even Ã¢â¬Å"computer-implemented inventionsÃ¢â¬ , which has led to 30,000 software related process patents. In 2002, the European Commission's Directorate for the Internal Market proposed the creation of a Directive to clarify the patentability of computer-implemented inventions and reduce excess at the EPO. However, the Directive only put on paper what the EPO had already been practicing, which was granting unlimited patentability. In September of 2003, a set of amendments to the Directive were voted in by the European Parliament.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Will Biofuels solve global warming? Global warming is caused by greenhouse gasses; these trap heat in the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere that should escape from the earth. Global warming is causing sea levels to rise and ice caps to melt this could lead to coastal cities flooding, droughts in areaÃ¢â¬â¢s which usually get rain and less crops to list only a few affects. The cause of global warming is Ã¢â¬Å"greenhouse gassesÃ¢â¬ these gasses include nitrous oxide carbon dioxide and water vapour.Cars produce CO2, H20 and trace amounts of nitrogen oxide all greenhouse gases, with the amount of cars on the road surpassing the 1 billion mark in 2010 according to WardÃ¢â¬â¢s Auto with the average car realising 7 tons of CO2 each year it is easy to see why cars are one of the biggest contributors to global warming, producing energy for factories to work also produces harmful gases one solution to this problem is Biofuels. Biofuels is the term given to living or recently living biological material which can be used to fuel cars and other forms of transport they can be derived from any Biomass include animal waste products. Also read: What Unique Challenges Do Aquatic Plants Face That Terrestrial Plants Do NotOne of the main advantages of Biofuels is that they are almost carbon neutral; when a crop is growing it performs photosynthesis to create sugars and other organic compounds that provide energy during this process plants take in CO2 when these crops are turned into Biofuels and burned this CO2 is realised back into the atmosphere as no more CO2 has been added it is carbon neutral however some CO2 is produced in transporting these crops and turning them into Biofuels so they are not completely carbon neutral.Unlike fossil fuels such as petrol Biofuels are a renewable energy source this means they will not run out as crops can be grown back relatively quickly. Biofuels can be created anywhere in the world meaning it is accessible to many people. Biofuels are also cheaper to run than petrol or diesel with the price of petrol rising due to it depleting amount Biofuels are cheaper to attain. Other benef it of Biofuels is that they provide jobs and industry for many farmers all over the world.One popular type of Biofuel is Biodiesel which has many advantages * Simpler to make than other Biofuels such as Ethanol * Burn up to 75% cleaner * Provide new source of income for farmers However Biofuels also have their disadvantages one of the main problems is the land needed to produce the crops. In the UK in 2010 71. 61 % of the UK land was used in agriculture this left around 28. 39 % of land for other uses, coming of the lack of land environmentalist worry that the habitat of any animals and wild plants creating the room to grow Biofuels.At this moment in time Biofuels are not sustainable without affecting the price of food and production. Though Biofuels will give farmers more income however it will give farmer more income than growing crops does this leads to the danger of farmers stopping the growing of crops to grow Biofuels this could lead to less food production and ultimately star vation. Biodiesel also has disadvantages * Ã sustainability issues * Making biodiesel is not very efficient Biodiesel cannot meet the demand of diesel.Biofuels are not the only alternative fuels Hydrogen fuel cells could also be used in cars to power them they are cleaner than most fuels. Electrical cars are also become increasingly popular however unless the electricity is produced using Biofuels they can still be damaging on the environment. There is no definitive answer to Ã¢â¬Å"Will Biofuels solve global warmingÃ¢â¬ as the issue we are in is far too complex for just one solution, Biofuels along with other renewable energy sources e. g. wind turbines and hydroelectric power would provide a more viable solution to global warming.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Exposure to Violent Television Causes Aggressive Behavior in Children Abstract: Studies of the aggressiveness in children in relation to the amount of violent television viewed were examined. The results are discussed and a potential solution is proposed which assigns responsibility for the control of television viewing and its effects to parents and children. Television is the most powerful medium the world has ever seen. Never before has it been possible to communicate and so strongly influence millions of people at the same moment right in their own homes. But its misuse has been felonious, and society is paying an increasing price (Langone, 1984). Almost weekly the press carries some story about the harmful effects ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The on-off switch is the ultimate defense, and parents wield it (Mortimer, 1994). Parents do have a duty to protect their children from the effects of violent television (Zuckerman, 1993), and one way that parents protect their children is to teach them such moral values as honesty, courage, and self-control (Browden, 1995). However, because the children are directly involved in this problem, and are the ones who are watching and being affected by the violent television they are viewing, They need to participate in the effort to resolve this issue. Parents cant do it all by themselves; especially in these days of single-parent and two-career families, parents just cant be with their children all of the time (Mortimer, 1994). The questions that are to be addressed in this paper are the following: What is considered violent television? What are the effects of violent television on children? Who is responsible for the effects on children? How can we begin to resolve the issue of the effects of violent television on children? Several definitions of violent behavior in relation to the media have been put forth. A violence index compiled for cable television programs defines it as a clear-cut and overt episode of physical violence--hurting or killing or the threat of hurting and/or killingin any context.Show MoreRelatedTelevision : Violence And Television1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbrothers who were in middle school. When it came to picking a Tv show to watch, it seem as if I was a ghost, because my brothers never asked me for my opinion, things always went there way. With that being said, I grew up watching lots of violent on tv, I never really got to watch kids shows, the only shows I watch were the shows my brothers like. My brothers and I grew up in a violence neighborhood, so we watched violent movies,and tv shows, we felt related to. Outside the doors of our house, wereRead MoreMedia Violence Essay1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbetween televised violence and violent behavior amongst adolescents. Current s tudies have shown a direct correlation between aggressive conduct and watching violence depicted in many media services and suggest that media is a variable that put children at risk of aggressive behavior (Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski, Eron, 1992). According to the American Psychological Association, watching playing violent scenes them on games and television, can desensitize children to the suffering and pain ofRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On People1388 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrisk for violence and aggression. Research has proven that aggression in children will cause the likelihood of aggression in their adulthood. Theories have evolved that the violence present in the media most likely teaches the viewer to be more violent. It is a risky behavior that is established from the childhood. Furthermore, media violence is a public health risk because it gives off a long term effect of aggressive behavior to a correlation of .20 to .30. Media Violence through television, videoRead MoreResearch Paper Outline on Violence in Media Contributes to Violence in Children888 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesseen on TV, has been heard on the radio or something has been read in the newspapers then it is perceived as being the truth. Throughout history the media has been used as a tool to convey different messages to people. The issue of the behavior of children when exposed to violence on media has been an issue to be debated upon and studied for a very long time. There are many devices that children have access to of late which include video games, iPods, iPads, DVDs, computers and so on. Children are oftenRead MoreThe Number Of School Shootings1613 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe number of school shootings by teenagers causes researchers great concern. Researchers wonder if there is a correlation between the increased numbers in young adolescents playing video games containing violence, and the increased numbers of teenage school shootings. Brad Bushman believes there is a c orrelation between Ã¢â¬Å"video game violence and violenceÃ¢â¬ (2013, p. 376) To explore the correlation, one must first understand the definition of aggression. Eden and Eshet-Alkalai use Anderson and BushmanÃ¢â¬â¢sRead More The Negative Impact of Exposing Children to Media Violence Essay1448 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Negative Impact of Exposing Children to Media Violence On April 20, 1999 at Columbine High School, 13 people were killed and another 23 were wounded in one of the worst school killing incidents ever (Skeesis). Since the 1980s, overall homicide rates in the U.S. have declined. However, homicide rates for ages 14-17 have increased quite dramatically during this time period (Fox). Among other numerous potential causes, violence in the media may play a role in this increase in youth violenceRead MoreChildren Aggression From Violent Television Essay1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages280 Children Aggression From Violent Television Page Break Over the years, researchers have studied the effects that television has had on children. WhenÃ¢â¬ ¯children are taughtÃ¢â¬ ¯toÃ¢â¬ ¯tie their shoes, it is because their parents taught them. When children are taught to ride their bikes, it is because someone showed them. In many instances, children learnÃ¢â¬ ¯by watching and observing things they see others do.Ã¢â¬ ¯This leads researchers to believe that violent television in terms, makes children more aggressiveRead MoreEssay about The Media And Violence979 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand concern has been the issue of violence in the media and the impact that this has on children. Although important research efforts have increased our understanding of the topic there is still a great that needs to be done in terms of the application and implementation of the findings to policies and television programming. It has become generally acknowledged by many communications studies that exposure to violence in the media can both influence an increase in the observers use of violenceRead MorePsychological Effects of Television on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Behavior/Learning1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDoes violence on television have a negative effect on children and teenagers? The violence seen on television has had surprising negative effect. Violence shown on television causes children and teenagers to develop behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Such behavioral and learning problems include; language development, school performance / learning, cognitive development and their general behavior to others (Kinnear 27). In a study on the correlation between violence and television doneRead More Is Violence in Films Responsible For Childrens Agressive Behavior?1021 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFor Childrens Agressive Behavior? Violence on screen is often offered to the young population, which responds to it in so different ways. Childrens psychological development is based on social experiences and imitations. Children are influenced either by their families (direct source of influence) or by their surroundings (indirect source of influence). The question I will be exploring is the responsibility of the violence in films in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s aggressive behavior. I will discussthe points